How to verify your Ubuntu 16.04.1 download the easy way

This tutorial explains how to verify your Ubuntu 16.04.1 download manually.

Open a terminal by keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Alt + T and go to the Downloads directory to check your downloaded iso file.

cd Downloads

Then run one of the the following commands from within the download directory.

md5sum ubuntu-16.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso

Or,

sha256sum ubuntu-16.04.1-desktop-amd64.iso

Compare the hash (the alphanumeric string on left) that your machine calculated with the corresponding hash on the UbuntuHashes page: http://releases.ubuntu.com/16.04.1/MD5SUMS or http://releases.ubuntu.com/16.04/SHA256SUMS.

Open the page in your browser and copy the hash your machine calculated from the terminal into the “Find” box in your browser and search for the hash string. If there is a match the downloaded file is intact.

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Change hostname permanently from the Terminal without a restart

This quick tutorial explains how to change hostname permanently from the Terminal without a restart in Ubuntu 16.04.1.

Open the Terminal by keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Alt + T.

Show current hostname:
hostname

Set new static hostname:
hostnamectl set-hostname YOUR-HOSTNAME

Restart the system service that manages user logins:
systemctl restart systemd-logind.service

Check new hostname:
hostname

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Links for setting up LaTeX on Windows

MiKTex: http://miktex.org/
Download -> Other Downloads -> MiKTeX 2.9.5987 64-bit Net Installer (all packages and a complete TeX/LaTeX system)

Ghostscript: http://www.ghostscript.com/
Download -> Ghostscript 9.19

GSview: http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/gsview/
Obtaining GSview 5.0 -> gsv50x64.exe

TeXnicCenter: http://www.texniccenter.org/
Download -> TeXnicCenter 2.02 Stable (64 Bit)

TeXnicCenter installation: Enter the full path of the PostScript-viewer to use: C:\Program Files\Ghostgum\gsview\gsview64.exe

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Git, Github, and RStudio

See also http://rogerdudler.github.io/git-guide/ or https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Commands-Setup-and-Config

### Initialize a repository ###
# Initialize a git repository in an existing directory
git init

### Setup git with RStudio/SSH ###
# RStudio
RStudio -> Tools -> Global Options -> Git/SVN -> Create RSA Key -> Create -> Copy the key
# GitHub
Your Profile -> SSH and GPG keys -> New SSH key

### Setup new GitHub repository ###
Select “New repository” (click the + sign). Follow the onscreen instructions.

### Stage your files ###
# Stage all changes
git add .
# Add a remote repository (e.g. GitHub)
git remote add origin [GitHub link]

### Commit your files ###
git commit -m “Commit message”

### git pull ###
# Pull initial remote work from GitHub
git pull [GitHub link]

### git push ###
# Publish to external server (e.g. GitHub)
git push origin master
# Add an upstream reference if Pull and Push buttons are greyed out in RStudio
# Also, see https://www.r-bloggers.com/things-i-forget-pushpull-greyed-out-in-rstudio/
git push -u origin master

### git checkout ###
# Create a new branch and switch to it
git checkout -b [name of branch]
# Switch back to master
git checkout master

### git branch ###
# Delete local branch
git branch -d [name of branch]
# Delete remote branch
git branch -dr origin/[name of branch]

### git status ###
# Show the working tree status
https://git-scm.com/docs/git-status

### Untrack a file ###
git rm –cached [filename]

### List tracked files ###
git ls-files

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